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Electrical Topics Category

Tunable Spiral Inductors

Added on: February 20th, 2012 by No Comments

A tunable micro-electromechanical systems integrated inductor with a large-displacement electro-thermal actuator is discussed here. Based on a transformer configuration, the inductance of a spiral inductor is tuned by controlling the relative position of a magnetically coupled short-circuited loop. Theoretical studies are backed by a variety of fabricated and measured tunable inductors that show a 2 : 1 inductance tuning ratio over a wide frequency range of approximately 25 GHz. In addition, the maximum and minimum quality factors of the tunable inductor are measured to be 26 and 10 which is high compared to previous designs. They can considerably extend the tuning capabilities of critical reconfigurable circuits such as tunable impedance matching circuits, phase shifters voltage controlled oscillators, and low noise amplifiers.

Flexible AC Transmission Systems

Added on: February 19th, 2012 by No Comments

The rapid development of power electronics technology provides exciting opportunities to develop new power system equipment for better utilization of existing systems. Such as enhancing the security, capacity and flexibility of power transmission systems. FACTS solutions enable power grid owners to increase existing transmission network capacity while maintaining or improving the operating margins necessary for grid stability. Supply of reliable, high-quality electrical energy at a reasonable cost is at the heart of the nation’s economy. The electric power system is one of the nation’s important infrastructures, and the infrastructure most closely tied with the gross domestic product. In view of changes in both the operating and business sector of the electric utility industry. These changes have been mandated by provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and electric utilities to provide open access to the transmission system.

Several advanced methods are developed for maintaining a high degree of power quality and reliability under a deregulated environment. At the distribution level, flexible control strategies involve computerized automation of system control devices such as capacitor banks, under load tap changing transformers (Ultc’s) and voltage regulators. In the transmission system, a new method of achieving this control is through the use of power electronics based Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices. This paper provides a comprehensive guide to FACTS, covering all the major aspects in research and development of FACTS technologies. Various real-world applications are also included to demonstrate the issues and benefits of applying FACTS.The objective of this project is to create a multi-institutional power curriculum to address this new environment and technologies.


Added on: February 13th, 2012 by No Comments

The rate of rise of power utility in a country represents its development in any field” necessity is the mother of invention “.so, efficient and reliable power supply is the major requirement of any power supply system. as in many other areas, the computer applications in electrical power system have grown tremendously over the last several decades ,penetrating apparently all aspects of electrical power systems including operational planning ,energy management systems, automation of power generation ,transmission and distribution, protection relaying, etc. a system used to monitor and control equipment and process is Called SCADA.SCADA system is the one of the applications of it.

The present paper explains about the whole SCADA system, its hardware components, software components and its application programs. in hardware components its field instrumentation, remote stations, communication network, central monitoring station are explained. in software components data acquisition and processing ,control, alarm handling, logging and archiving, automated mapping and facility management etc.are considered. and very clearly the appliCation programs like load shedding ,load balancing, remote metering ,maintain good voltage profile, maintain, maps, fuse Call off operations, energy accounting, etc. are emphasized.

Microbial Fuel Cells

Added on: February 9th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

In an era of climate change, alternate energy sources are desired to replace oil and carbon resources. Subsequently, climate change effects in some areas and the increasing production of biofuels are also putting pressure on available water resources. Microbial Fuel Cells have the potential to simultaneously treat wastewater for reuse and to generate electricity; thereby producing two increasingly scarce resources.

While the Microbial Fuel Cell has generated interest in the wastewater treatment field, knowledge is still limited and many fundamental and technical problems remain to be solved Microbial fuel cell technology represents a new form of renewable energy by generating electricity from what would otherwise be considered waste, such as industrial wastes or waste water etc. A microbial fuel cell [Microbial Fuel Cell] is a biological reactor that turns chemical energy present in the bonds of organic compounds into electric energy, through the reactions of microorganism in aerobic conditions.

Flywheel Energy Storage

Added on: January 26th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty 1 Comment

Energy Storage is becoming increasingly important with the advent of individual electronic devices and the rising need to accommodate a greater population which relies on these devices. A flywheel is simple form of mechanical (kinetic) energy storage. Energy is stored by causing a disk to spin on its axis. Flywheels are one of the most promising technologies for replacing conventional lead acid batteries as energy storage systems for a variety of applications including automobiles, economical rural electrification systems, and stand-alone, remote power units commonly used in the telecommunications industry.

Commercially available Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) Systems are used for small uninterpretable power systems. More recently, the flywheel has regained consideration as a viable means of supporting a critical load during mains power interruption, due to the lower capital expense and extended run time now available from many systems, as well as continued customer dissatisfaction with traditional electrochemical energy storage.

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