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Computer/IT Topics Category

Voice Browsers

Added on: February 24th, 2012 by No Comments

Browser technology is changing very fast these days and we are moving from the visual paradigm to the voice paradigm. Voice browser is the technology to enter this paradigm. A voice browser is a “device which interprets a (voice) markup language and is capable of generating voice output and/or interpreting voice input, and possibly other input/output modalities.”This paper describes the requirements for two forms of character-set grammar, as a matter of preference or implementation; one is more easily read by (most) humans, while the other is geared toward machine generation.


Added on: February 23rd, 2012 by No Comments

The Internet is a rapidly becoming an integral aspect of the desktop computer if it has not already become so. The Internet can be visualized as worldwide information repository enabling resource sharing on a worldwide basis, through the use of distributed applications. Agents are a new approach to the development of distributed client-server applications built to exploit this information resource.

AgentOS provides an environment for the development and the deployment of agent-based client-server applications based on agents. Agents are an object representation of distributed systems containing both computational logic and state information. Agents are active and mobile, in that they (along with their state information) can migrate between the various hosts that exist in an agent-system such as AgentOS. Agents are autonomous in that they contain code to execute and take decisions on behalf of a human user or another agent as they carry out their assigned tasks. Agents can be as simple as s single algorithm or as complex as a complete application.

Viewed from the perspective of a single host, AgentOS behaves as a traditional server providing an environment for the execution of agents and accessibility of services. Abstracting one level further, i.e., viewed from the perspective of the entire network, AgentOS exceeds the role of the traditional server by assuming the role of a peer in a network of similar servers collectively providing an environment for distributed applications.

The first section in this paper discusses the agent-paradigm, the range of applications most suited for this mode of programming and the typical life cycle of an agent within an agent system such as AgentOS. The second section of this report discusses the requirements for AgentOS, and the design of AgentOS. Finally, a brief survey of related works and an overview of future directions for AgentOS are presented.

Blue Eyes

Added on: February 21st, 2012 by No Comments

Imagine yourself in a world where humans interact with computers. You are sitting in front of your personal computer that can listen, talk, or even scream aloud. It has the ability to gather information about you and interact with you through special techniques like facial recognition, speech recognition, etc. It can even understand your emotions at the touch of the mouse. It verifies your identity, feels your presents, and starts interacting with you .You ask the computer to dial to your friend at his office. It realizes the urgency of the situation through the mouse, dials your friend at his office, and establishes a connection.

Human cognition depends primarily on the ability to perceive, interpret, and integrate audio-visuals and censoring information. Adding extraordinary perceptual abilities to computers would enable computers to work together with human beings as intimate partners. Researchers are attempting to add more capabilities to computers that will allow them to interact like humans, recognize human presents, talk, listen, or even guess their feelings.

The BLUE EYES technology aims at creating computational machines that have perceptual and sensory ability like those of human beings. It uses non-obtrusive sensing method, employing most modern video cameras and microphones to identify the users actions through the use of imparted sensory abilities. The machine can understand what a user wants, where he is looking at, and even realize his physical or emotional states.

Mobile Phone Cloning

Added on: February 20th, 2012 by No Comments

Mobile communication has been readily available for several years, and is major business today. It provides a valuable service to its users who are willing to pay a considerable premium over a fixed line phone, to be able to walk and talk freely. Because of its usefulness and the money involved in the business, it is subject to fraud.

Unfortunately, the advance of security standards has not kept pace with the dissemination of mobile communication.
Some of the features of mobile communication make it an alluring target for criminals. It is a relatively new invention, so not all people are quite familiar with its possibilities, in good or in bad. Its newness also means intense competition among mobile phone service providers as they are attracting customers. The major threat to mobile phone is from cloning.


Added on: February 19th, 2012 by No Comments

XML is the language used to develop web applications. XML is a set of rules for designing structured data in a text format as opposed to binary format, which is useful for man, and machine both. A parser is used for syntactical and lexical analysis. XML parser extract the information from the XML document which is very much needed in all Web applications Simple object access protocol is a protocol that lets the program to send XML over HTTP to invoke methods on remote objects. An XML parser can serve as an engine for implementing this or a comparable protocol.

XML parser can also be used to send data messages formatted as XML over HTTP. By adding XML and HTTP capabilities to application, software developers can begin to offer alternatives to traditional browsers that have significant value to their customers. This paper presents an XML parser that implements a subset of the XML specification. This is useful to all developers and users for checking the welformedness and validation of an XML documents.


Added on: February 17th, 2012 by No Comments

Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of a person based on his or her physiological or behavioral characteristics like fingerprint, or iris pattern, or some aspects of behaviour like handwriting or keystroke patterns. Biometrics is being applied both to identity verification. The problem each involves is somewhat different. Verification requires the person being identified to lay claim to an identity. So the system has two choices, either accepting or rejecting the person’s claim. Recognition requires the system to look through many stored sets of characteristics and pick the one that matches the unknown individual being presented. BIOMETRIC system is essentially a pattern recognition system, which makes a personal identification by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristics possessed by the user.

Biometrics is a rapidly evolving technology, which is being used in forensics Such as criminal identification and prison security, and has the potential to be used in a large range of civilian application areas. Biometrics can be used transactions conducted via telephone and Internet (electronic commerce and electronic banking. In automobiles, biometrics can replace keys with key-less entry devices.

Blu-Ray Technology

Added on: February 13th, 2012 by No Comments

Blu-ray is a new optical disc standard based on the use of a blue laser rather than the red laser of today’s DVD players. The standard, developed collaboratively by Hitachi, LG, Matsushita (Panasonic), Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, and Thomson, threatens to make current DVD players obsolete. It is not clear whether new Blu-ray players might include both kinds of lasers in order to be able to read current CD and DVD formats.
The new standard, developed jointly in order to avoid competing standards, is also being touted as the replacement for writable DVDs The blue laser has a 405 nanometer (nm) wavelength that can focus more tightly than the red lasers used for writable DVD and as a consequence, write much more data in the same 12 centimeter space Like the rewritable DVD formats, Blu-ray uses phase change technology to enable repeated writing to the disc.

Blu-ray’s storage capacity is enough to store a continuous backup copy of most people’s hard drives on a single disc. The first products will have a 27 gigabyte (GB) single-sided capacity, 50 GB on dual-layer discs. Data streams at 36 megabytes per second (Mbps), fast enough for high quality video recording Single-sided Blu-ray discs can store up to 13 hours of standard video data, compared to single-sided DVD’s 133 minutes. People are referring to Blu-ray as the next generation DVD, although according to Chris Buma, a spokesman from Philips (quoted in New Scientist) “Except for the size of the disc, everything is different.”

Blu-ray discs will not play on current CD and DVD players, because they lack the blue-violet laser required to read them. If the appropriate lasers are included, Blu-ray players will be able to play the other two formats. However, because it would be considerably more expensive, most manufacturers may not make their players backward compatible. Panasonic, Philips, and Sony have demonstrated prototypes of the new systems.

Sky X Technology

Added on: February 13th, 2012 by No Comments

Satellites are attractive option for carrying internet and other IP traffic to many locations across the globe where terrestrial options are limited or [censored] prohibitive. But data networking on satellite is faced with overcoming the large latency and high bit error rate typical of satellite communications as well as the asymmetric bandwidth design of most satellite network.Satellites is ideal for providing internet and private network access over long distance and to remote locations. However the internet protocols are not optimized for satellite conditions. So the throughput over the satellite networks is restricted to only a fraction of available bandwidth.Mentat , the leading supplies of TCP/IP to the computer industry have overcome their limitations with the development of the Sky X product family.

The Sky X system replaces TCP over satellite link with a protocol optimized for the long latency, high loss and asymmetric bandwidth conditions of the typical satellite communication. The Sky X family consists of Sky X Gateway, Sky X Client/Server and Sky X OEM products. Sky X products increase the performance of IP over satellite by transparency replacing. The Sky X Gateway works by intercepting the TCP connection from client and converting the data to Sky X protocol for transmission over the satellite. The Sky X Client /Server product operates in a similar manner except that the Sky X client software is installed on each end users PC. Connection from applications running on the PC is intercepted and sends over the satellite using the Sky X protocol.

Brain Computer Interface

Added on: February 12th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty 2 Comments

Brain Computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that recognized users’ command only from his or her brainwaves and reacts according to them. For this purpose PC and subject is trained. Simple task can consist of desired motion of an arrow displayed on the screen only through subject’s imaginary of something (e.g. motion of his or her left or right hand). As the consequence of imaging process, certain characteristics of the brainwaves are raised and can be used for user’s command recognition, e.g. motor mu waves (brain waves of alpha range frequency associated with physical movements or intention to move).

An Electroencephalogram based Brain-Computer-Interface (BCI) provides a new communication channel between the human brain and a computer. Patients who suffer from severe motor impairments (late stage of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), severe cerebral palsy, head trauma and spinal injuries) may use such a BCI system as an alternative form of communication by mental activity.

The use of EEG signals as a vector of communication between men and machines represents one of the current challenges in signal theory research. The principal element of such a communication system, more known as “Brain Computer Interface”, is the interpretation of the EEG signals related to the characteristic parameters of brain electrical activity.

Artificial Intelligence

Added on: February 9th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty 5 Comments

The AP is an artificial intelligence–based companion that will be resident in software and chips embedded in the automobile dashboard. The heart of the system is a conversation planner that holds a profile of you, including details of your interests and profession.

A microphone picks up your answer and breaks it down into separate words with
speech-recognition software. A camera built into the dashboard also tracks your lip movements to improve the accuracy of the speech recognition. A voice analyzer then looks for signs of tiredness by checking to see if the answer matches your profile. Slow responses and a lack of intonation are signs of fatigue.

This research suggests that we can make predictions about various aspects of driver performance based on what we glean from the movements of a driver’s eyes and that a system can eventually be developed to capture this data and use it to alert people when their driving has become significantly impaired by fatigue.


Added on: February 6th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

Organizations have, over the years, successfully employed business intelligence tools like OLAP and data warehousing to improve the supply of business information to end users for cross industry applications like finance and customer relationship management, and in vertical markets such as retail, manufacturing, healthcare, banking, financial services, telecommunications, and utilities. In the recent years, the Internet has opened up an entirely new channel for marketing and selling products. Companies are taking to e-business in a big way. The issue facing end users as organizations deploy e-business systems is that they do have not had the same business intelligence capabilities available to them in e-business systems as they do in the traditional corporate operating environment. This prevents businesses from exploiting the full power of the Internet as a sales and marketing channel.

As a solution, vendors are now developing business intelligence applications to capture and analyze the information flowing through e-business systems, and are developing Web-based information portals that provide an integrated and personalized view of enterprise-wide business information, applications, and services. This advanced business intelligence systems are called E-intelligence systems.

Airborne Internet

Added on: February 6th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty 2 Comments

The Airborne Internet is network in which all nodes would be located in aircraft. The network is intended for use in aviation communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) and would also be useful to businesses, private Internet users, and military. In time of war, for example, an airborne network might enable military planes to operate without the need for a communications infrastructure on the ground. Such a network could also allow civilian planes to continually monitor each other’s positions and flight paths.

Airborne Internet is network will serve tens of thousands of subscribers within a super-metropolitan area, by offering ubiquitous access throughout the networkâ„¢s signal “footprint”. The aircrafts will carry the “hub” of a wireless network having a star topology. The aircrafts will fly in shifts to provide continuous service, 24 hour per day by 7 days per week, with an overall system reliability of 99.9% or greater. At least three different methods have been proposed for putting communication nodes aloft. The first method would employ manned aircraft, the second method would use unmanned aircraft, and the third method would use blimps. The nodes would provide air-to-air, surface-to-air, and surface-to-surface communications. The aircraft or blimps would fly at altitudes of around 16 km, and would cover regions of about 40 mi (64 mi) in radius. Any subscriber within this region will be able to access the networkâ„¢s ubiquitous multi-gigabit per second “bit cloud” upon demand. what the airborne internet will do is provide an infrastructure that can reach areas that don’t have broadband cables & wires. Data transfer rates would be on the order of several gigagabits per second, comparable to those of high-speed cable modem connections. Network users could communicate directly with other users, and indirectly with conventional Internet users through surface-based nodes.

Like the Internet, the Airborne Network would use TCP/IP as the set of protocols for specifying network addresses and ensuring message packets arrive. This technology is also called High Altitude Long Operation (HALO) The concept of the Airborne Internet was first proposed at NASA Langley Research Center’s Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Planning Conference in 1999.