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Civil Topics Category


Added on: February 3rd, 2020 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

Adding a skylight is one of the quickest and easiest ways to make any room of your home lighter and brighter, adding an open and airy feeling. There are two basic types of skylights for residential use – flat glass and domed acrylic – and each have some advantages.
Domed acrylic skylights are less expensive than glass, and their convex shape tends to let the rain wash accumulated dust and dirt off a little easier. The acrylic dome is mounted in an aluminum frame, which is in turn mounted on a 2×6 box called a “curb.” Once the hole is cut in the roof to the manufacturer’s specifications, the curb is constructed on-site to raise the skylight above the level of the roof sheathing. Site- built or factory-supplied flashings are used to seal the roofing around the curb.

Domed skylights are available in clear, smoked, bronze or other tints. Most are double- or triple-glazed in order to achieve the level of energy efficiency required by the building codes. Several sizes are available, with the most common being 2×2, 2×4 and 4×4 feet.
Flat glass skylights come mounted in a wood or integrated rubber and metal framework, and require no additional curb construction. After the hole is cut, the skylight frame is simply attached to the roof sheathing with L- brackets, then the installation is completed using the factory- supplied flashing kit. Easy installation, superior insulating qualities, less tendency to scratch and a cleaner finished appearance all add to the popularity and somewhat higher cost of glass skylights.

Glass skylights also have a greater number of optional accessories. These include tempered, laminated or wire glass; shades and blinds for light control; glass tints for heat retention or to block sunlight; and the ability to open fully or partially for ventilation. At least one company, Velux – a leading manufacturer of quality glass skylights that are available at most local home centers and lumber yards – even offers an electric motor coupled to a rain sensor that automatically shuts the skylight if it detects rain.

Construction and Safety Management

Added on: October 6th, 2013 by No Comments

Managing construction sites are difficult due to temporary work nature, changing work area, untrained workers, over time works etc., Most of the accidents occurred in construction activities like building structures, demolition, excavation, roof work, alteration, scaffolding, painting etc,. In typical construction works about 1500 people are killed in Britain and 25,000-30,000 more are seriously injured. The accident statistics represent not only serious human tragedies but also substantial economical losses due to accidents which cause damage to plant and equipment, loss of productive time, loss of morale among workers, increased compensation and loss of image and reputation for the industry. The key to a successful construction project is to identify vulnerable hazards and eliminate or minimize them. To avoid accidents, the causes of accidents and reliability of the statistics are to be analyzed. Various construction regulations should be followed. The safety policy should be framed. Workers are to be trained in safe methods of work. Safe physical conditions should be provided in the construction sites. Sufficient and suitable personal protective equipments be provided and insisted. Supervision of work area are to be ensured.

River Linking

Added on: September 28th, 2013 by No Comments

River Linking is project linking two or more rivers by creating a network of manually created canals, and providing land areas that otherwise does not have river water access and reducing the flow of water to sea using this means. It is based on the assumptions that surplus water in some rivers can be diverted to deficit rivers by creating a network of canals to interconnect the rivers.
It aims to Transfer water from surplus to water deficit areas in the country.
Inter-Linking River Program will help saving the people living in drought-prone zones from hunger and people living in flood-prone areas from the destruction caused by floods”.

Soft Ground Tunneling

Added on: September 27th, 2013 by 1 Comment

In Soft Ground Tunneling workers dig soft-ground tunnels through clay, silt, sand, gravel or mud. In this type of tunnel, stand-up time — how long the ground will safely stand by itself at the point of excavation — is of paramount importance. Because stand-up time is generally short when tunneling through soft ground, cave-ins are a constant threat. To prevent this from happening, engineers use a special piece of equipment called a shield. A shield is an iron or steel cylinder literally pushed into the soft soil. It carves a perfectly round hole and supports the surrounding earth while workers remove debris and install a permanent lining made of cast iron or precast concrete. When the workers complete a section, jacks push the shield forward and they repeat the process.

Basalt Rock Fibre (BRF)

Added on: September 24th, 2013 by 3 Comments

Basalt is well known as a rock found in virtually every country round the world. Basalt Rock fibres have no toxic reaction with air or water, are non-combustible and explosion proof. When in contact with other chemicals they produce no chemical reactions that may damage health or the environment. Basalt base composites can replace steel and known reinforced plastics (1 kg of basalt reinforces equals 9.6 kg of steel). There seemed to be something quite poetic in using a fibre made from natural rock to reinforce a material, which might quite reasonably be described as artificial rock. Raw material for producing basalt fibre is a rock of the volcanic origin. Fibres are received by melting basalt stones down at the temperature of 1400?C. Melted basalt mass passes through the platinum bushing and is extended into fibres. Basalt Rock fibre special properties reduce the cost of products whilst improving their performance. Scope: Low cost, high performance basalt fibres offer the potential to solve the largest problem in the cement and concrete industry, cracking and structural failure of concrete.Basalt fibre reinforced concrete could become the leading reinforcement system in the world for minimizing cracking, reducing road wear, improving concrete product life, lowering maintenance and replacement costs, and minimizing concrete industry law suits. It was therefore with considerable interest that use of basalt fibres as a reinforcing material for concrete. We propose here to investigate the usage of Basalt fibers in low cost composites for civil infrastructure applications requiring excellent mechanical support properties and long lifetimes. Because of the higher performance (strength, temperature range, and durability) and lower potential cost predicted for basalt fibers, they have the potential to cost effectively replace fiberglass, steel fiber, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyester, aramid and carbon fiber products in many applications.

Use of Discrete Fiber in Road Construction

Added on: March 19th, 2012 by 2 Comments

New materials and construction techniques are required to provide Civil Engineering with alternatives to traditional road construction practices. Traditional techniques have not been able to bear the mixed traffic load for a long time. Therefore the pavement requires overlaying. To overcome this problem fiber inclusion in pavements is adopted nowadays. This paper highlights on the use of discrete fiber in road construction. Recently Geosynthetics have been used to reinforce and separate base course material for aggregate-surfaced roads and flexible pavements. Inclusion of discrete fibers increases shear strength and ductility.

Reactive Powder Concrete

Added on: March 17th, 2012 by No Comments

Concrete is a critical material for the construction of infrastructure facilities throughout the world. A new material known as reactive powder concrete (RPC) is becoming available that differs significantly from traditional concretes. RPC has no large aggregates, and contains small steel fibers that provide additional strength and in some cases can replace traditional mild steel reinforcement. Due to its high density and lack of aggregates, ultrasonic inspections at frequencies ten to twenty times that of traditional concrete inspections are possible. These properties make it possible to evaluate anisotropy in the material using ultrasonic waves, and thereby measure quantitatively the elastic properties of the material. The research reported in this paper examines elastic properties of this new material as modeled as an orthotropic elastic solid and discusses ultrasonic methods for evaluating Young’s modulus nondestructively. Calculation of shear moduli and Poisson’s ratio based on ultrasonic velocity measurements are also reported. Ultrasonic results are compared with traditional destructive methods.

Polymer Fiber Reinforced Concrete Pavements

Added on: March 11th, 2012 by 1 Comment

Road transportation is undoubtedly the lifeline of the nation and its development is a crucial concern. The traditional bituminous pavements and their needs for continuous maintenance and rehabilitation operations points towards the scope for cement concrete pavements. There are several advantages of cement concrete pavements over bituminous pavements. This paper explains on POLYMER FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS, which is a recent advancement in the field of reinforced concrete pavement design. PFRC pavements prove to be more efficient than conventional RC pavements, in several aspects, which are explained in this paper. The design procedure and paving operations of PFRC are also discussed in detail. A detailed case study of Polyester fiber waste as fiber reinforcement is included and the results of the study are interpreted. The paper also includes a brief comparison of PFRC pavements with conventional concrete pavement. The merits and demerits of PFRC pavements are also discussed. The applications of PFRC in the various construction projects in kerala are also discussed in brief.

Burj Dubai Tower

Added on: February 20th, 2012 by No Comments

As with all super-tall projects, difficult structural engineering problems needed to be addressed and resolved. This paper presents the approach to the structural system for the Burj Dubai Tower. This paper first presents the architectural knowledge and the comparison of the Burj Dubai tower with other tall buildings of the world. It also describes the geotechnical procedures and structural detailing of the building besides the wind engineering applied to the tower.