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Emission Control Techniques

Added on: February 28th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

The need to control the emissions from automobiles gave rise to the computerization of the automobile. Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen are created during the combustion process and are emitted into the atmosphere from the tail pipe. There are also hydrocarbons emitted as a result of vaporization of gasoline and from the crankcase of the automobile. The clean air act of 1977 set limits as to the amount of each of these pollutants that could be emitted from an automobile. The manufacturers answer was the addition of certain pollution control devices and the creation of a self-adjusting engine. 1981 saw the first of these self-adjusting engines. They were called feedback fuel control systems. An oxygen sensor was installed in the exhaust system and would measure the fuel content of the exhaust stream. It then would send a signal to a microprocessor, which would analyze the reading and operate a fuel mixture or air mixture device to create the proper air/fuel ratio. As computer systems progressed, they were able to adjust ignition spark timing as well as operate the other emission controls that were installed on the vehicle. The computer is also capable of monitoring and diagnosing itself. If a fault is seen, the computer will alert the vehicle operator by illuminating a malfunction indicator lamp. The computer will at the same time record the fault in it’s memory, so that a technician can at a later date retrieve that fault in the form of a code which will help them determine the proper repair. Some of the more popular emission control devices installed on the automobile are: EGR valve, Catalytic Converter, Air Pump, PCV Valve, Charcol Canitiser etc.

Like SI engine CI engines are also major source of emission. Several experiments and technologies are developed and a lot of experiments are going on to reduce emission from CI engine. The main constituents causing diesel emission are smoke, soot, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxides etc. Unlike SI engine, emission produced by carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon in CI engine is small. Inorder to give better engine performance the emission must be reduce to a great extend. The emission can be reduced by using smoke suppressant additives, using particulate traps, SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) etc.

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