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Mechanical Topics Category

Camless Engine

Added on: February 28th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

The cam has been an integral part of the IC engine from its invention. The cam controls the “breathing channels” of the IC engines, that is, the valves through which the fuel air mixture (in SI engines) or air (in CI engines) is supplied and exhaust driven out. Besieged by demands for better fuel economy, more power, and less pollution, motor engineers around the world are pursuing a radical “camless” design that promises to deliver the internal – combustion engine’s biggest efficiency improvement in years. The aim of all this effort is liberation from a constraint that has handcuffed performance since the birth of the internal-combustion engine more than a century ago. Camless engine technology is soon to be a reality for commercial vehicles. In the camless valve train, the valve motion is controlled directly by a valve actuator – there’s no camshaft or connecting mechanisms .Precise electrohydraulic camless valve train controls the valve operations, opening, closing etc.

The seminar looks at the working of the electrohydraulic camless engine, its general features and benefits over conventional engines. The engines powering today’s vehicles, whether they burn gasoline or diesel fuel, rely on a system of valves to admit fuel and air to the cylinders and let exhaust gases escape after combustion. Rotating steel camshafts with precision-machined egg-shaped lobes, or cams, are the hard-tooled “brains” of the system. They push open the valves at the proper time and guide their closure, typically through an arrangement of pushrods, rocker arms, and other hardware. Stiff springs return the valves to their closed position. In an overhead-camshaft engine, a chain or belt driven by the crankshaft turns one or two camshafts located atop the cylinder head.
A single overhead camshaft (SOHC) design uses one camshaft to move rockers that open both inlet and exhaust valves. The double overhead camshaft (DOHC), or twin-cam, setup does away with the rockers and devotes one camshaft to the inlet valves and the other to the exhaust valves.

Adaptive Cruise Control

Added on: February 28th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

Mentally, driving is a highly demanding activity – a driver must maintain a high level of concentration for long periods and be ready to react within a split second to changing situations. In particular, drivers must constantly assess the distance and relative speed of vehicles in front and adjust their own speed accordingly.
Those tasks can now be performed by Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system, which is an extension of the conventional cruise control system.

Like a conventional cruise control system, ACC keeps the vehicle at a set constant speed. The significant difference, however, is that if a car with ACC is confronted with a slower moving vehicle ahead, it is automatically slowed down and then follows the slower vehicle at a set distance. Once the road ahead is clear again, the ACC accelerates the car back to the previous set cruising speed. In that way, ACC integrates a vehicle harmoniously into the traffic flow.

Gasoline Direct Injection

Added on: February 27th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

In recent years, legislative and market requirements have driven the need to reduce fuel consumption while meeting increasingly stringent exhaust emissions. This trend has dictated increasing complexity in automotive engines and new approaches to engine design. A key research objective for the automotive engineering community has been the potential combination of gasoline-engine specific power with diesel-like engine efficiency in a cost-competitive, production-feasible power train. One promising engine development route for achieving these goals is the potential application of lean burn direct injection (DI) for gasoline engines. In carburetors the fuel is sucked due to the pressure difference caused by the incoming air. This will affect the functioning of the carburetor when density changes in air are appreciable. There was a brief period of electronically controlled carburetor, but it was abandoned due to its complex nature. On the other hand in fuel injection the fuel is injected into the air.

Space Robotics

Added on: February 26th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

Robot is a system with a mechanical body, using computer as its brain. Integrating the sensors and actuators built into the mechanical body, the motions are realised with the computer software to execute the desired task. Robots are more flexible in terms of ability to perform new tasks or to carry out complex sequence of motion than other categories of automated manufacturing equipment. Today there is lot of interest in this field and a separate branch of technology ‘robotics’ has emerged. It is concerned with all problems of robot design, development and applications. The technology to substitute or subsidise the manned activities in space is called space robotics. Various applications of space robots are the inspection of a defective satellite, its repair, or the construction of a space station and supply goods to this station and its retrieval etc. With the over lap of knowledge of kinematics, dynamics and control and progress in fundamental technologies it is about to become possible to design and develop the advanced robotics systems. And this will throw open the doors to explore and experience the universe and bring countless changes for the better in the ways we live.

Interstate Hydrogen Highway

Added on: February 26th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

Interstate Hydrogen Highway was brought up by Justin Eric Sutton. This highway mainly depends on hydrogen and water. Hydrogen is obtained in the basic process that produces electricity when sunlight striking EPV (electro photo voltaic panels).panels is then used to convert distilled water into hydrogen and oxygen .while the oxygen could be bottled and sold cheaply the hydrogen would serve as a “battery” store in compressed form in cooling tanks adjacent to the traveler system in utility centers. Electricity is produced by hydrogen using hydrogen fuel cell technology. Electricity generated in hydrogen highway by Magnetic Levitation (MAGLEV) technology may be used to provide for other power needs such as utility stations, access stations lightning and maintenance and rest can be used for domestic usage.

A certain amount of hydrogen would be stored each day to encompass night time travel and weather related burdens. Speed of trailblazer in hydrogen highway is 250-300 MPH. all it takes is “$1,50,00,000 per mile , and $2,50,000 per Rail Car. With an eventual system size of nearly 54,000 miles would yield as much as 45 billion watts of continuous electrical power.

Air Car

Added on: February 26th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

The Air car is a car currently being developed and, eventually, manufactured by Moteur Developpement International (MDI), founded by the French inventor Guy Nègre. It will be sold by this company too, as well as by ZevCat, a US company, based in California.

The air car is powered by an air engine, specifically tailored for the car. The used air engine is being manufactured by CQFD Air solution, a company closely linked to MDI.

The engine is powered by compressed air, stored in a glass or carbon-fibre tank at 4500 psi. The engine has injection similar to normal engines, but uses special crankshafts and pistons, which remain at top dead center for about 70% of the engine’s cycle; this allows more power to be developed in the engine.

Though some consider the car to be pollution-free, it must be taken into account that the tanks are recharged using electric (or gasoline) compressors, resulting in some pollution, if the electricity used to operate the compressors comes from polluting power plants (such as gas-, or coal-power plants). Solar power could possibly be used to power the compressors at fuel station.


Added on: February 24th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

Vehicles designed to travel close to but above ground or water. These vehicles are supported in various ways. Some of them have a specially designed wing that will lift them just off the surface over which they travel when they have reached a sufficient horizontal speed (the ground effect). Hovercrafts are usually supported by fans that force air down under the vehicle to create lift, Air propellers, water propellers, or water jets usually provide forward propulsion. Air-cushion vehicles can attain higher speeds than can either ships or most land vehicles and use much less power than helicopters of the same weight. Air-cushion suspension has also been applied to other forms of transportation, in particular trains, such as the French Aero train and the British hover train.

Hovercraft is a transportation vehicle that rides slightly above the earth’s surface. The air is continuously forced under the vehicle by a fan, generating the cushion that greatly reduces friction between the moving vehicle and surface. The air is delivered through ducts and injected at the periphery of the vehicle in a downward and inward direction. This type of vehicle can equally ride over ice, water, marsh, or relatively level land.

Water Jet Cutter

Added on: February 23rd, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

In the battle to reduce costs, engineering and manufacturing departments are constantly on the lookout for an edge. The water jet process provides many unique capabilities and advantages that can prove very effective in the cost battle. Learning more about the water jet technology will give us an opportunity to put these cost-cutting capabilities to work. Beyond cost cutting, the water jet process is recognized as the most versatile and fastest growing process in the world. Waterjets are used in high production applications across the globe. They compliment other technologies such as milling, laser, EDM, plasma and routers. No poisonous gases or liquids are used in waterjet cutting, and waterjets do not create hazardous materials or vapors. No heat effected zones or mechanical stresses are left on a waterjet cut surface. It is truly a versatile, productive, cold cutting process. The waterjet has shown that it can do things that other technologies simply cannot. From cutting whisper, thin details in stone, glass and metals; to rapid whole drilling of titanium; for cutting of food, to the killing of pathogens in beverages and dips, the waterjet has proven itself unique.

Reverse Engineering

Added on: February 23rd, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

Engineering is the profession involved in designing, manufacturing, constructing, and maintaining of products, systems, and structures. At a higher level, there are two types of engineering: forward engineering and reverse engineering.

Forward engineering is the traditional process of moving from high-level abstractions and logical designs to the physical implementation of a system. In some situations, there may be a physical part without any technical details, such as drawings, bills-of-material, or without engineering data, such as thermal and electrical properties.
The process of duplicating an existing component, subassembly, or product, without the aid of drawings, documentation, or computer model is known as reverse engineering.

Reverse engineering can be viewed as the process of analyzing a system to:
1. Identify the system’s components and their interrelationships
2. Create representations of the system in another form or a higher level of abstraction
3. Create the physical representation of that system

Reverse engineering is very common in such diverse fields as software engineering, entertainment, automotive, consumer products, microchips, chemicals, electronics, and mechanical designs. For example, when a new machine comes to market, competing manufacturers may buy one machine and disassemble it to learn how it was built and how it works. A chemical company may use reverse engineering to defeat a patent on a competitor’s manufacturing process. In civil engineering, bridge and building designs are copied from past successes so there will be less chance of catastrophic failure. In software engineering, good source code is often a variation of other good source code.

In some situations, designers give a shape to their ideas by using clay, plaster, wood, or foam rubber, but a CAD model is needed to enable the manufacturing of the part. As products become more organic in shape, designing in CAD may be challenging or impossible. There is no guarantee that the CAD model will be acceptably close to the sculpted model. Reverse engineering provides a solution to this problem because the physical model is the source of information for the CAD model. This is also referred to as the part-to-CAD process.

Another reason for reverse engineering is to compress product development times. In the intensely competitive global market, manufacturers are constantly seeking new ways to shorten lead-times to market a new product. Rapid product development (RPD) refers to recently developed technologies and techniques that assist manufacturers and designers in meeting the demands of reduced product development time. For example, injection-molding companies must drastically reduce the tool and die development times. By using reverse engineering, a three-dimensional product or model can be quickly captured in digital form, re-modeled, and exported for rapid prototyping/tooling or rapid manufacturing.


Added on: February 8th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the nanoscale. A nanometer is a very small measure of length-it is one billionth of a meter, a length so small that only three or four atoms lined up in a row would be a nanometer. So, nanotechnology involves designing and building materials and devices where the basic structure of the material or device is specified on the scale of one or a few nanometers. Ultimately, nanotechnology will mean materials and devices in which every atom is assigned a place, and having every atom in the right place will be essential for the functioning of the device.

The kinds of product that could be built will range from microscopic, very powerful computers to super strong materials ten times as strong as steel, but much lighter too, food to other biological tissues. All these products would be very inexpensive because the molecular machines that built them will basically take atoms from garbage or dirt, and energy from sunshine, and rearrange those atoms into useful products, just like trees and crops take dirt, water and sunshine and rearrange the atoms into wood and food.

Nanotechnology cannot be defined as a definite branch of science but different from the conventional ones that we have as of now. It is set to encompass all the technological aspects that we have today and is nothing but the extension of scientific applications to a microscopic scale and thereby reaching closer to perfection if not right there.

The Hy-Wire Car

Added on: February 6th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty 1 Comment

Hy-Wire Car is without mechanical and hydraulic linkage end engine. Instead of these it contain a fuel cell stack and a drive by wire system. It is fully automated car it is a future car. In future it will have a wide application. The problem with fuel consumption and pollution can be minimize to certain level.

Cars are immensely complicated machines, but when you get down to it, they do an incredibly simple job. Most of the complex stuff in a car is dedicated to turning wheels, which grip the road to pull the car body and passengers along. The steering system tilts the wheels side to side to turn the car, and brake and acceleration systems control the speed of the wheels.

Given that the overall function of a car is so basic (it just needs to provide rotary motion to wheels), it seems a little strange that almost all cars have the same collection of complex devices crammed under the hood and the same general mass of mechanical and hydraulic linkages running throughout. Why do cars necessarily need a steering column, brake and acceleration pedals, a combustion engine, a catalytic converter and the rest of it?

According to many leading automotive engineers, they don’t; and more to the point, in the near future, they won’t. Most likely, a lot of us will be driving radically different cars within 20 years. And the difference won’t just be under the hood — owning and driving cars will change significantly, too.