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SEMINAR TOPICS CATEGORY

Automobile Topics Category

Solar Sail

Added on: February 24th, 2020 by Webmaster No Comments

Hundreds of space missions have been launched since the last lunar mission, including several deep space probes that have been sent to the edges of our solar system. However, our journeys to space have been limited by the power of chemical rocket engines?and the amount of rocket fuel that a spacecraft can carry. Today, the weight of a space shuttle at launch is approximately 95 percent fuel. What could we accomplish if we could reduce our need for so much fuel and the tanks that hold it?
International space agencies and some private corporations have proposed many methods of transportation that would allow us to go farther, but a manned space mission has yet to go beyond the moon. The most realistic of these space transportation options calls for the elimination of both rocket fuel and rocket engines — replacing them with sails. Yes, that’s right, sails.
Solar-sail mission analysis and design is currently performed assuming constant optical and mechanical properties of the thin metalized polymer films that are projected for solar sails. More realistically, however, these properties are likely to be affected by the damaging effects of the space environment. The standard solar-sail force models can therefore not be used to investigate the consequences of these effects on mission performance. The aim of this paper is to propose a new parametric model for describing the sail film’s optical degradation with time. In particular, the sail film’s optical coefficients are assumed to depend on its environmental history, that is, the radiation dose. Using the proposed model, the optimal control laws for degrading solar sails are derived using an indirect method and the effects of different degradation behaviors are investigated for an example interplanetary mission.

On-road Charging of Electric Vehicles

Added on: February 15th, 2020 by Afsal Meerankutty 1 Comment

Contactless Power Transfer (CPT) systems are applicable for charging electric vehicles (EVs) without any physical interconnection. These systems can be installed on roadways in order to charge the vehicles while driving. The implementation of such on-road charging systems in order to extend the driving range and decrease the EV battery size is investigated in this paper. The percentage of road that should be covered and the power transfer capability of the system are estimated. Some design considerations, such as the distribution and the length of the CPT segments over the road, are explained. Finally, the total power demand for all the passing-by vehicles using the system is calculated and the possibility of powering the EVs directly from renewable energy sources is discussed.

Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)

Added on: February 13th, 2020 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

Technological advances are reshaping the face of manufacturing, creating paperless manufacturing environments in which computer automated process planning (CAPP) will play a preeminent role. The two reasons for this effect are: Costs are declining, which encourages partnerships between CAD and CAPP developers and access to manufacturing data is becoming easier to accomplish in multivendor environments. This is primarily due to increasing use of LANs; IGES and the like are facilitating transfer of data from one point to another on the network; and relational databases (RDBs) and associated structured query language (SQL) allow distributed data processing and data access.
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With the introduction of computers in design and manufacturing, the process planning part needed to be automated. The shop trained people who were familiar with the details of machining and other processes were gradually retiring and these people would be unavailable in the future to do process planning. An alternative way of accomplishing this function was needed and Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) was the alternative. Computer aided process planning was usually considered to be a part of computer aided manufacturing. However computer aided manufacturing was a stand alone system. Infact a synergy results when CAM is combined with CAD to create a CAD/CAM. In such a system CAPP becomes the direct connection between design and manufacturing.

Moreover, the reliable knowledge based computer-aided process planning application MetCAPP software looks for the least costly plan capable of producing the design and continuously generates and evaluates the plans until it is evident that non of the remaining plans will be any better than the best one seen so far. The goal is to find a useful reliable solution to a real manufacturing problem in a safer environment. If alternate plans exist, rating including safer conditions is used to select the best plans

Air Muscles

Added on: February 10th, 2020 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

Air muscle is essentially a robotic actuator which is replacing the conventional pneumatic cylinders at a rapid pace. Due to their low production costs and very high power to weight ratio, as high as 400:1, the preference for Air Muscles is increasing. Air Muscles find huge applications in biorobotics and development of fully functional prosthetic limbs, having superior controlling as well as functional capabilities compared with the current models. This paper discusses Air Muscles in general, their construction, and principle of operation, operational characteristics and applications.

Robotic actuators conventionally are pneumatic or hydraulic devices. They have many inherent disadvantages like low operational flexibility, high safety requirements, and high cost operational as well as constructional etc. The search for an actuator which would satisfy all these requirements ended in Air Muscles. They are easy to manufacture, low cost and can be integrated with human operations without any large scale safety requirements. Further more they offer extremely high power to weight ratio of about 400:1. As a comparison electric motors only offer a power ration of 16:1. Air Muscles are also called McKibben actuators named after the researcher who developed it.

Green Engine

Added on: February 6th, 2020 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

Everyday radios, newspapers, televisions and the internet warn us of energy exhaustion, atmospheric pollution and hostile climatic conditions. After few hundred years of industrial development, we are facing these global problems while at the same time we maintain a high standard of living. The most important problem we are faced with is whether we should continue “developing” or “die”.

Coal, petroleum, natural gas, water and nuclear energy are the five main energy sources that have played important roles and have been widely used by human beings.

The United Nations Energy Organization names all of them “elementary energies”, as well as “conventional energies”. Electricity is merely a “second energy” derived from these sources. At present, the energy consumed all over the world almost completely relies on the supply of the five main energy sources. The consumption of petroleum constitutes approximately 60 percent of energy used from all sources, so it is the major consumer of energy.

The green engine is one of the most interesting discoveries of the new millennium. It has got some unique features that were used for the first time in the making of engines. This engine is a piston less one with features like sequential variable compression ratio, direct air intake, direct fuel injection, multi-fuel usage etc. The efficiency of this engine is high when compared to the contemporary engines and also the exhaust emissions are near zero. The significance of the engine lies in the efficiency when the present world conditions of limited resources of energy are considered. Prototypes of the engine have been developed. Generators have been produced with the green engine.

Artificial Passenger

Added on: March 6th, 2017 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

The AP is an artificial intelligence–based companion that will be resident in software and chips embedded in the automobile dashboard. The heart of the system is a conversation planner that holds a profile of you, including details of your interests and profession.

A microphone picks up your answer and breaks it down into separate words with speech-recognition software. A camera built into the dashboard also tracks your lip movements to improve the accuracy of the speech recognition. A voice analyzer then looks for signs of tiredness by checking to see if the answer matches your profile. Slow responses and a lack of intonation are signs of fatigue.

This research suggests that we can make predictions about various aspects of driver performance based on what we glean from the movements of a driver’s eyes and that a system can eventually be developed to capture this data and use it to alert people when their driving has become significantly impaired by fatigue.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness

Added on: January 11th, 2017 by Afsal Meerankutty No Comments

In today’s economy, you’re expected to continuously improve your Return on Total Capital. And as capital to build new, more efficient plants becomes more difficult to obtain, you often have to meet growing production demands with current equipment and facilities — while continuing to cut costs.

There are several ways you can optimize your processes to improve profitability. But it can be difficult to understand the overall effectiveness of a complex operation so you can decide where to make improvements. That’s especially true when the process involves multiple pieces of equipment that affect each other’s effectiveness.

One metric that can help you meet this challenge is Overall Equipment Effectiveness, or OEE. OEE measures the health and reliability of a process relative to the desired operating level. It can show you how well you’re utilizing resources, including equipment and labor, to satisfy customers by matching product quality and supply requirements.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) measures total performance by relating the availability of a process to its productivity and output quality.

OEE addresses all losses caused by the equipment, including
• Not being available when needed because of breakdowns or set-up and adjustment losses
• Not running at the optimum rate because of reduced speed or idling and minor stoppage losses
• Not producing first-pass A1 quality output because of defects and rework or start-up losses.

OEE was first used by Seiichi Nakajima, the founder of total productive maintenance (TPM), in describing a fundamental measure for tracking production performance. He challenged the complacent view of effectiveness by focusing not simply on keeping equipment running smoothly, but on creating a sense of joint responsibility between operators and maintenance workers to extend and optimize overall equipment performance.

First applied in discrete manufacturing, OEE is now used throughout process, batch, and discrete production plants.

Air Brake System

Added on: February 28th, 2012 by No Comments

Air brake system consists of the following components:

Compressor:
The compressor generates the compressed air for the whole system.

Reservoir:
The compressed air from the compressor is stored in the reservoir.

Unloader Valve:
This maintains pressure in the reservoir at 8bar.When the pressure goes above 8 bar it immediately releases the pressurized air to bring the system to 8-bar pressure.

Air Dryer:
This removes the moisture from the atmospheric air and prevents corrosion of the reservoir.

System Protection Valve:
This valve takes care of the whole system. Air from the compressor is given to various channels only through this valve. This valve operates only at 4-bar pressure and once the system pressure goes below 4-bar valve immediately becomes inactive and applies the parking brake to ensure safety.

Dual Brake Valve:
When the driver applies brakes, depending upon the pedal force this valve releases air from one side to another.

Graduated Hand Control Valve:
This valve takes care of the parking brakes.
Brake Chamber:
The air from the reservoir flows through various valves and finally reaches the brake chamber which activates the S-cam in the brake shoe to apply the brakes in the front

Actuators:
The air from the reservoir flows through various valves and finally reaches the brake chamber, which activates the S-cam in the brake shoe to apply the brakes in the rear.

Adaptive Cruise Control

Added on: February 28th, 2012 by No Comments

Mentally, driving is a highly demanding activity – a driver must maintain a high level of concentration for long periods and be ready to react within a split second to changing situations. In particular, drivers must constantly assess the distance and relative speed of vehicles in front and adjust their own speed accordingly.
Those tasks can now be performed by Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system, which is an extension of the conventional cruise control system.

Like a conventional cruise control system, ACC keeps the vehicle at a set constant speed. The significant difference, however, is that if a car with ACC is confronted with a slower moving vehicle ahead, it is automatically slowed down and then follows the slower vehicle at a set distance. Once the road ahead is clear again, the ACC accelerates the car back to the previous set cruising speed. In that way, ACC integrates a vehicle harmoniously into the traffic flow.

Air Car

Added on: February 26th, 2012 by No Comments

The Air car is a car currently being developed and, eventually, manufactured by Moteur Developpement International (MDI), founded by the French inventor Guy Nègre. It will be sold by this company too, as well as by ZevCat, a US company, based in California.

The air car is powered by an air engine, specifically tailored for the car. The used air engine is being manufactured by CQFD Air solution, a company closely linked to MDI.

The engine is powered by compressed air, stored in a glass or carbon-fibre tank at 4500 psi. The engine has injection similar to normal engines, but uses special crankshafts and pistons, which remain at top dead center for about 70% of the engine’s cycle; this allows more power to be developed in the engine.

Though some consider the car to be pollution-free, it must be taken into account that the tanks are recharged using electric (or gasoline) compressors, resulting in some pollution, if the electricity used to operate the compressors comes from polluting power plants (such as gas-, or coal-power plants). Solar power could possibly be used to power the compressors at fuel station.

Airborne Internet

Added on: February 6th, 2012 by Afsal Meerankutty 2 Comments

The Airborne Internet is network in which all nodes would be located in aircraft. The network is intended for use in aviation communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) and would also be useful to businesses, private Internet users, and military. In time of war, for example, an airborne network might enable military planes to operate without the need for a communications infrastructure on the ground. Such a network could also allow civilian planes to continually monitor each other’s positions and flight paths.

Airborne Internet is network will serve tens of thousands of subscribers within a super-metropolitan area, by offering ubiquitous access throughout the networkâ„¢s signal “footprint”. The aircrafts will carry the “hub” of a wireless network having a star topology. The aircrafts will fly in shifts to provide continuous service, 24 hour per day by 7 days per week, with an overall system reliability of 99.9% or greater. At least three different methods have been proposed for putting communication nodes aloft. The first method would employ manned aircraft, the second method would use unmanned aircraft, and the third method would use blimps. The nodes would provide air-to-air, surface-to-air, and surface-to-surface communications. The aircraft or blimps would fly at altitudes of around 16 km, and would cover regions of about 40 mi (64 mi) in radius. Any subscriber within this region will be able to access the networkâ„¢s ubiquitous multi-gigabit per second “bit cloud” upon demand. what the airborne internet will do is provide an infrastructure that can reach areas that don’t have broadband cables & wires. Data transfer rates would be on the order of several gigagabits per second, comparable to those of high-speed cable modem connections. Network users could communicate directly with other users, and indirectly with conventional Internet users through surface-based nodes.

Like the Internet, the Airborne Network would use TCP/IP as the set of protocols for specifying network addresses and ensuring message packets arrive. This technology is also called High Altitude Long Operation (HALO) The concept of the Airborne Internet was first proposed at NASA Langley Research Center’s Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Planning Conference in 1999.